Principles for Road Planning from Norwegian Public Roads Administration (1996)
“The principles applied in road
planning aim to conserve the biodiversity and natural and cultural environments,
the scenery and opportunities for outdoor recreation when road building affects
Seven principles for
environmental-friendly road planning
1. The developer has the principal
responsibility for taking environmental concerns into account. Concern for
natural assets must be evaluated on an equal footing with technical and
2. Planning should be based on a good knowledge of nature and the environment. Mapping protected areas and protected objects is not sufficient. Experts should evaluate the scientific consequences of the various alternatives. Co-operation with specialist authorities early in the process is a prerequisite for a good environmental result.
3. Analyse and evaluate the entire area
affected by the road. Road works affect the natural and cultural environments,
the scenery and outdoor recreation over larger areas than the road itself
covers. Evaluate the consequences for longer stretches and larger areas than the
actual road works will directly involve.
4. Avoid disturbing or cutting through
valuable areas of countryside.
Division and fragmentation can lead to
loss of assets for the natural and cultural environments, the landscape and
outdoor pursuits. The remaining areas must have a form and size which make them
functional for the natural environment.
5.Protect animal migration routes,
opportunities for fish to swim freely and links between areas of open
countryside. Ecological interplay which has evolved over a long period and which
is perfectly adapted to the location and the surroundings can never be fully
6.Accommodate the road to the natural
and cultural environments, the scenery and opportunities for outdoor recreation.
Choose alignment, standard, materials and details which safeguard the assets of
7. Use alleviatory measures if
undesirable encroachment is unavoidable.
Revise plans which do not take the
environmental viewpoint into account.”
Landscape and biological diversity is
one of Europe’s greatest assets. However the extent and the value of this
asset has been significantly diminished by the activities of man. To maintain
the asset for the future generations a reverse in the decline must take place.
Responsibility for the reversal includes those involved with linear transport.
At a strategic level
across Europe a framework is in place to incorporate environmental
considerations into transport infrastructure so to influence the processes which
affect landscape and biological diversity. However, there is a gulf between
Declarations, legislation and subsequent implementation.
Effective use of
environmental assessment and other procedures need to permeate all levels of
decision-making in the process of planning, designing, constructing and managing
transport infrastructure. This will assist with anticipating problems and
opportunities, and design solutions. Attention to detail is important.
This Code of
Practice has highlighted and presented examples of best practice in taking
forward linear transport infrastructure within the context of landscape and
biological diversity. It should assist the conservation and enhancement of the
diversity of landscape and biological features and contribute towards more
sustainable transportation systems.
This Code of
Practice is recommended to all those individuals in linear transport systems
within the pan-European Region.